Orange: (citrus aurantium) combination skin, soothing to dry, irritated, or acne prone skin, antidepressant, cardiac spasm, anxiety, insomnia, mouth ulcers, digestive system, fluid retention, obesity, constipation.

Caution: Avoid direct sunlight and sensitive skin when using the oil.

Patchouli: (pogostemon patchouli) acne and oily skin, stimulate regrowth of cells and forming scar tissue, eczema, fungal infections, cracked and chapped skin, impetigo, sores, wounds, scalp disorders, nervous tension and anxiety, bad breath gargle, depression, anti bacterial and insecticide.

Peppermint: (mentha piperita) skin irritation or itching, acne, inflammation, indigestion, colic, flatulence, sedative, insomnia, vomiting, diarrhoea, stomach, headaches, mental fatigue, depression, decongestant.

Caution: Avoid oil with infants and for people with high blood pressure.

Pine: (pinus sylvestris) is used for its pleasant forest aroma as well as for a softer skin and to aid skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis; reduces phlegm in the breathing passages, regulates metabolism., rheumatic pain, asthma, colds, urinary infections. It is also used as an additive in the water used for steam in the sauna.



Thuja (thuja occidentails) – is a household fungicide. For tropical ulcers, tinea, ringworm, athlete’s foot, planter warts, or any fungus-looking infection that is making a mess of your skin.

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) it is used in footbaths, handbaths and douches to promote better circulation, getting rid of nail fungus and athlete’s foot, reducing fever and yeast infection of the vagina. Bathe wounds and burns with solution, compresses on bumps and bruises, and used as an eye wash for sore red eyes.

Witch Hazel (hamamelis virginiana) It is well known as an astringent for oily skin as a skin freshener and helps to reduce the size of enlarged pores. It is also used as an underarm deodorant, to ease tired feet and as compresses for inflamed eyes. Yarrow (achillea millefolium) chapped skin, cracked lips, herpes sores, haemorrhoids, hives, oily skin, rashes, sore nipples, varicose veins, weathered skin, wounds. Yarrow antispasmodic, to improve circulation, for better skin. The tea is used for bleeding, haemorrhoids, varicose veins and menstrual disorders.



Are used in ointments, creams, cosmetics, massage oils, facial oils, body moisturisers and for bath oils. Place herbs or petals, leaves, seeds or bark into a wide neck bottle. Cover with oil and leave in direct sunlight for one week. Take out the old herbs and replace with fresh herbs. Repeat procedure until the required aroma is achieved.

Fresh herbs 1 cup or dried herbs 40 g, cold pressed oil 500 ml, apple cider vinegar 20 ml

Strain or filter then bottle and label and store in a cool place Ointments

Ointments of various kinds were used for cosmetics, medicine, and in religious ceremonies. Also used to protect the skin against the hot winds from the desert. An ointment is an extraction from vegetable oils, olive oil, sweet almond Oil or from fats such as butter or lard which are blended with bee’s wax, cocoa butter or lanolin.

Ointments are suitable where the skin is weak or fragile and needs extra protection and additional moisture from environmental conditions. It forms a separate fine layer over the skin, it is best to use bee’s wax for it lets your skin breathe.

For a soft ointment add one part wax to five parts oil and by adding one part wheatgerm oil you will preserve the ointment. Essential oil dilution can vary from 1-5% dilution Beeswax is used as an emulsifier and binder for cosmetic’s, salves and ointments. Perfumes, balms and ungunt were made in the form of pomanders which is a scented ointment.



This is one of the best oils to use for herbal infusions for the oil is considered a good cleansing and healing agent. It also assists in removing toxic wastes from the blood. The Roman Gladiators use to anoint their bodies with olive oil, to add suppleness to their limbs and to strengthen the skin. Cleopatra used olive oil and other herbal oils to maintain her beautiful skin.

The Olive is a symbol of goodness and purity representing peace and happiness. Olive oil was used during the offering of purification from leprosy and in religious ceremonies. Using oils for anointing and healing is mentioned in the Bible over 200 times.

Medicinal external use: Olive oil is used for treatment of wounds, bums, arthritis, pain, rheumatic conditions, protects against the cold, cools the head, gout, relaxing to muscles and nerves.

Cosmetic use: olive oil contains linoleic acid which can be used in treating skin disorders such as scaling, flaking, thickening and colour change. It is also used for protection against the scorching sun, it soothes, heals, and lubricates the skin, cleanses the skin and strengthens the nails. For sagging skin around the face and throat areas: Take 2 egg yolks and beat them together with 1/2 cup of olive oil. brush on and leave for 10 minutes, then apply stiffly beaten egg whites over entire mask and leave on for 1 hour It is used for dry, brittle hair, as an anti-dandruff treatment, for fine or damaged hair and used as a hair conditioner



It’s surprising how many beauty products there are in your kitchen and garden just waiting to be used!

Aloe Vera

This has been known since biblical times as one of nature’s most useful plants for the skin. Cleopatra used aloe vera to keep her complexion clear and soft. The gel from a freshly cut plant contains an antibacterial, anti-fungi substance. Fresh leaves are split in half and place the gel side of the leaf to embedded thorns, stones or fish scales to assist in their removal, the leaf is secured with a bandage. Leave dressing on and change daily, this will draw out the object in 3-4 days. Aloe vera fresh juice or gel is an excellent remedy for skin and hair problems.

Skin care: burns, blemishes, bed sores, dipper rash, boils, fungus, wrinkles, dry skin, chapped skin, dermatitis, eczema, sunburn, rashes, scares, skin infections, sun protection, wounds, stubborn ulcers and to reduce scaring.

Hair care: dry hair, itchy scalp, brittle hair, hair gel, dandruff and scalp disorders.

First aid: antiseptic, burns, minor cuts, cold sores, disinfectant, insect bites, minor pain.



Myelography and discography

These two investigations involve the injection of dye under X-ray control — either into the discs themselves or into the fluids surrounding the spinal cord.

Such assessments are sometimes useful for the further diagnosis of precise locations of damage to the discs -— literally the shock absorbers between the bones of the spinal column. But such investigations are, by their nature, invasive or involve penetration of body structures and the injection of dye to which some are acutely allergic. These complications, although sometimes difficult to control are not usually serious.

Many physicians prefer to do these investigations only if the patient is prepared to have surgery, because the investigations may sometimes precipitate an acute problem.



Joe, a Construction site foreman in his mid-30s, consulted his doctor about eight years ago because he had heard that the GP had started to practice acupuncture some months previously.

Joe told the doctor that he had been experiencing severe and intractable migraine headaches for the past three years.

He was concerned that for the past six months the only form of treatment that offered relief was an injection of Pethidine, a powerful narcotic. These had started off as one injection every two weeks but had recently been given to him at the rate of three injections a week.

After taking a full history and examining him and finding that there were no apparent abnormalities, the doctor proceeded to place approximately eight acupuncture needles into various parts of Joe’s body.

The needles were left in place for half an hour, occasionally being turned by hand. They were then removed and Joe was asked to return the following week for the second treatment.

Two years later he arrived at the doctor’s surgery and said that he had thought he had better come in for a second treatment because he had recently started to have headaches!

Joe has not been seen by the doctor since then, so further comments about his history cannot be given. Although Joe’s response to acupuncture was dramatic, it is not unusual. (According to pain clinic acupuncture practitioners approximately 50 to 70 per cent of classical migraine sufferers respond in some way to acupuncture on its own or combined with medication.)



A scale called the visual analogue scale is a straight line — either horizontal or vertical — the ends of which are fixed by a statement of the extreme limits of the sensation to be measured. For example, ‘no pain’ or ‘excruciating pain’. You can then estimate your position on this line on a particular day, or a particular moment. Thus, on

one day a score of 80 might be obtained when your pain is at its severest. Yet, on another, a very good day, you may rate your pain as low as 20.-This simple method of self-assessment can therefore give the treating physician, or therapist, a reasonably accurate means of comparing your pain over a period of weeks or months. This type of scale appears to be very sensitive to changes in pain following treatments of all kinds.

This compares well with verbal rating scales where words are chosen from a list of up to 100 or more words to describe their pain.

A pressure algometer is also used. This is a spring-loaded device which measures the pressure needed to cause pain to the person undergoing the pain experiment.



The Gate Control Theory, suggested by Melzack and Wall in 1965, is the most accepted theory of pain today — although it still has its critics. This theory suggests that a control mechanism exists in the back horn of the butterfly-shaped spinal cord’s inner structure. It particularly applies to an area called the substantia gelatinosa — a jelly-like substance. Melzack and Wall believe that a ‘gate’ is present in this area and, when open, pain messages can pass through to the brain and make their impact.

American Professor Ronald Lawrence suggests that his students imagine two men running for the same narrow gate. The ‘fat man’ (messages travelling along the thick nerve fibres) can run much faster than the ‘thin man’ (messages travelling along thin fibres). He can get to the gate first and can thus block the gate. The thin man can pass through the open gate as do the pain messages when the gate is not blocked. But when the gate is closed, for whatever reason, the pain signal is not received by the brain and is thus effectively blocked. The gate receptors appear to be special spinal nerve cells.Thus signals travel slowly to ‘keep the gate open’ along the small uncoated nerve fibres, and the larger, coated fibres, with their rapid signals, ‘close the gate’. To better understand this, imagine you stub your toe. The pain signal travels slowly along the thin A delta fibres. By rubbing your toe, you send messages along the thicker beta fibres causing the gate to ‘close’. Thus, the pain decreases. This partially explains the effectiveness of acupuncture and TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation), a treatment derived initially from the observation that electricity applied to the skin could have profound effects in controlling pain. The smaller fibres seem able to increase the effect of the input of sensory information into different parts of the brain. These increased signals may initiate reactive signals that descend into the spinal cord. When enough of these signals are activated, another system comes into play — the avoidance system (a reflex phenomenon), performed without thinking of pain — (rubbing your stubbed toe, wagging the finger you’ve mistakenly hit with a hammer, withdrawing your hand from a hot stove.)