The two major essential fatty acids, linoleic acid and gammalinolenic acid, in which evening primrose oil is rich, are natural skin nutrients. Linoleic acid and gammalinoleic acid are vital components of the structure of all cell membranes and are normally converted by the body into prostaglandins. Prostaglandins play an important role in maintaining skin health.
When applied directly to the skin, linoleic acid and gammalinolenic acid have a profound effect on reducing trans-epidermal water loss, so evening primrose oil works as a natural moisturizer.
Unlike some other major organs of the body, skin is not capable of converting linoleic acid applied directly to it to gammalinolenic acid. The conversion of dietary linoleic acid to GLA and prostaglandin El is known to decrease with age. As a consequence, the levels of GLA and PGE1 in the skin may become low, and the condition of the skin may suffer.
Because evening primrose oil is such a rich source of GLA, the problematic first step in the conversion process, from linoleic acid to GLA and through to PGE1, is completely avoided.
If you provide the skin with a direct source of GLA, it means that the liver – which normally does the conversion from linoleic acid to gammalinolenic acid – has less work to do. By applying evening primrose oil to the skin, you are providing it with a direct precursor of prostaglandin El on site.

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Ectopic Pregnancies
Ectopic pregnancies occur when a fertilized egg implants within the peritoneal cavity or inside a fallopian tube. There the foetus grows and thrives until internal bleeding threatens the expectant mothers life. Surgery is the only means of rescue. Often surgical intervention leaves a woman without one of her fallopian tubes. Ectopic pregnancies impact more frequently amongst women who suffer from Pelvic Inflammatory Disease or use Intra Uterine Devices as a means of contraception.
Home Remedies
Don’t use Intra Uterine Devices as a form of contraception. The devices may be of use in underdeveloped or third world countries where women cannot afford better. Australia is not one of these. Do not have unprotected intercourse with a man of doubtful sexual history without the use of a condom.
Ejaculatory Disorders
Disorders of ejaculation can be divided into three groups: neurotic failure, backward ejaculation and neurological failure. Neurotic failure precludes intra vaginal ejaculation, although it remains possible to ejaculate whilst masturbating. The problem relates to anxiety and requires psychotherapy and behaviour modification.
Backward ejaculation occurs with damage to the bladder neck or abnormalities at birth. Sperm in a post ejaculatory urine specimen makes the diagnosis and drugs are used in an attempt to improve this condition, as well as ejaculation in the presence of a full bladder.
Absolute failure of ejaculation occurs with neurological damage caused by prostatectomy or diabetes. Treatment is difficult. One text suggests implanted nerve stimulators or per rectal electro ejaculation under anesthesia.

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Masturbation is extremely common in childhood. Virtually all children masturbate at some stage and it should be regarded as a developmentally normal behaviour. In younger children it is part of the exploration of their bodies, and in older children it is part of the exploration of their sexuality. It is obviously a pleasurable activity in children of all ages, and is a normal part of their physical and psychological growth.

Self-stimulation begins in infancy with nappy changing and bathing. Babies very early on discover the pleasure of touch. Accidentally at first, and then with increasing purpose, they are able to recreate this pleasurable experience, and soon discover the relationship between self-stimulation and pleasure, along with such behaviours as thumb- and finger-sucking, rocking and head-banging.

Some parents attempt to stop or prevent this activity, often out of their own embarrassment. Some sections of the community and some cultures are moralistic about masturbation, implying that it is unnatural and if not prevented may lead to subsequent problems. In fact, this is not true — the repression of masturbation may lead to later problems by making the child guilty and confused about his body and emerging sexuality.

Parents should simply accept that masturbation is universal and a perfectly normal behaviour in children. It is best ignored. Sometimes parents are embarrassed because their child masturbates in public. It is better to distract the child than telling him to stop it. Paying attention to it, and in particular, trying to prevent a child from doing it, confer on the behaviour a seriousness that is unwarranted.




This procedure is similar to a barium swallow except that the barium is administered into the rectum using an enema. Under X-ray, it highlights abnormalities of the lower part of the bowel.


A solution containing a substance called barium is drunk, usually on an empty stomach. Under X-ray, the barium becomes visible in the oesophagus, stomach and gastro-intestinal tract. The barium is excreted in the faeces, which are white and powdery for a day or two afterwards.


A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue, under local or general anaesthetic, for examination under the microscope. The type of cells present can be identified and an accurate diagnosis of the medical condition usually made. Biopsies can be performed on all parts of the body including the skin, lymph nodes, bowel, liver, kidney and so on.


This test is done if it is suspected that a child has an infection in the bloodstream (sepsis). It is usually done in a hospital setting, as a child who is indeed septic usually needs to be hospitalised. A small amount of blood is drawn from a vein, just as in a normal blood test, but in very sterile conditions. The blood is mixed with a special culture liquid, then sent to the laboratory where it is incubated at a certain temperature to see if any germs grow. These can then be identified, and tested to see which antibiotics will be effective in treating them.


X-rays of the wrists in children can often be used as an indication of whether a child’s growth is in accordance with his chronological age. It can also be used to estimate ultimate height in children with short or tall stature (see p. 354-6).


In this test, which is performed under local anaesthetic in a hospital setting, a needle is inserted through the skin into the hip bone and a small amount of bone marrow extracted. It is generally performed if leukaemia or other similar forms of cancer are suspected.


This test is only performed in a hospital setting, under sedation or anaesthesia. A fine catheter (tube) is passed into the heart via a vein in the thigh, and the internal pressures blood, can be measured. It provides information which is important in the assessment of various heart conditions, especially congenital heart disease.



In my experience, the sudden development of a large inguinal hernia is more likely to follow an episode where the legs are suddenly stretched apart when the person slips rather than following an episode of lifting.

Inguinal hernias are much more common in men and this is to be expected when we consider the developmental anatomy.

The only proper treatment is operation. Trusses are mentioned only to be condemned. It has been found that long-term results are better if hernias are operated on even in bedridden elderly men.

A common complication of a hernia is that a portion of the bowel in the hernial sac may become trapped, twisted and its blood supply cut off.

If the bowel is just trapped, it is called an incarcerated hernia. If the bowel is kinked and obstructed, it is a strangulated hernia and, when the blood supply is cut off, the bowel becomes gangrenous. These complications usually require urgent operation.

A small hernia with a wide neck which is unlikely to become strangulated may be left if it causes no symptoms. But the tendency is for it to get worse, so operation should not be long delayed.



The Rhesus or Rh factor is present in all red blood cells and was detected in 1940.

It was named from the Rhesus monkey on which the experiments were conducted.

There are three pairs of Rh factors, or antigens, and these are determined by six genes — Ñ, c; D, d; E, e — carried on a pair of chromosomes. One chromosome comes from the mother and one from father.

However, it is the D antigen which alone determines whether a person is Rh positive or Rh negative. Eighty-five per cent of us are Rh positive, that is we have the D gene.

When an Rh negative woman is pregnant with an Rh positive foetus, the red cells containing this Rh factor can leak into the mother’s circulation. And stimulate the production of antibodies.

This leakage may occur at any time during pregnancy but is more likely at the time of delivery or during a spontaneous miscarriage or induced abortion.

This sensitisation is more likely if the mother’s blood and that of the baby are ABO compatible. The ABO is the main blood grouping of which there are four — À, Â, AB and O.




Did you know your child was lucky enough to own his own computer? What is more, he can also operate it! How’s that for competence, without any formal training, and without having to purchase anything?

In fact, his computer was given to him by you at birth. What is more, it will last him for the rest of his life, and it will keep working, year in and year out, until he dies from old age. It is the human brain. This wondrous bit of machinery, plus the electrical hook-up that goes with it, forms the nervous and muscular system of the body.

The computer is carefully locked up in a strong-room; its walls are made of solid bone, which is almost as strong as concrete. This is aimed at protecting it from injury throughout life.

From the lower back part, a thick tail extends downwards, through a canal formed by adjoining holes in the bones that make up the backbone, or spinal column. This thick, rope-like structure is called the spinal cord. As it descends down the back, it becomes gradually thinner. At regular intervals, where the vertebral bones join each other, a nerve is given off from the main cord. This tracks out and divides into many smaller divisions. Each goes to a certain part of the body or to a group of muscles.

In the head region, these are called the cranial nerves. At the level of the arms, large ones are given off and these supply the upper limbs. Lower down, huge nerves branch off to form the giant sciatic nerve which supplies the lower limbs.

All activities must start somewhere, and the beginning is the brain. Here, ideas are quickly translated into messages that are instantly conveyed to the appropriate part of the brain. Electrical impulses are then sent to the muscles concerned; the muscles contract and movement takes place. All this can happen with the speed of lightning.

The body is very fussy that the brain system be kept clean and free from germs or injury. For this reason it is covered with a thin sheet of tissue called the meninges—an important protective layer. Also, the brain is bathed in fluid called cerebro-spinal fluid. This helps protect it from sudden jarring movements which could otherwise damage it.

The entire spinal cord is made up of microscopic strands which commence in the brain and end in various muscles and organs of the body. (It is very similar to telephone cables which carry thousands of individual wires that extend from the exchange to a person’s telephone in the home. Each is capable of carrying an enormous number of messages, and the exchange knows exactly where the individual messages are headed for.)

The telephone system

But just as things can go wrong with the telephone system, so disorders may occur in the nerves. The brain itself may become diseased, as germs penetrate the coverings and produce brain damage that may be serious or even life-threatening. Also, the insulating material of the nerves may become impaired or diseased, causing short-circuits. This is represented by certain so-called demyelinating disorders.

Sometimes the brain is damaged before birth, and severe defects may occur, such as spina bifida or hydrocephalus. The electrical system of the brain may be defective, causing epilepsy. These disorders may occur before birth. Some develop afterwards, and indeed some may take place at any time during life.

Nerves frequently extend to muscles. Each muscle is made up of millions of tiny individual fibres, and each has a nerve attached to it. If an electrical impulse reaches the muscle, it causes it to contract or shorten. When thousands of these act together, it makes the entire muscle shorten, and in this way movement is possible. By shortening the muscles of the arm, for example, we can bend the arm, the hand, or the fingers. Impulses from the brain can be sent to other groups of muscles in the body at the same time. This is how we are capable of moving about and performing normal activities.

But just as the nerves can be diseased for various reasons, so the muscle fibres may suffer from various defects. Fortunately they are not very common in infancy and childhood.

Some nervous system disorders are common in infancy, but most are fairly uncommon. Convulsions during a fever are frequent, and epilepsy is also fairly common. Developmental anomalies are rarely seen by family doctors.

We will discuss some of the more probable disorders so that you may recognise them. At all times, any suspected abnormality of the brain or nervous system should prompt quick medical attention from the doctor. Today, many serious disorders may be successfully treated. The sooner this commences, the better.



This is one of those horrid diseases of yesteryear. At one time a terrible killer in the community, it is now rarely seen. However, cases do pop up from time to time, but the disease is totally preventable and these should never take place.

The disease is produced by an organism called Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is readily sneezed or coughed around from the throat of a patient or a carrier of the disease. The organism tends to resist drying, so may land on articles belonging to others and be transferred in this simple manner.

The usual starting point is a mild sore throat, plus a moderate fever anywhere from 38.5 to 39.0°C (101 to 102°F). Very quickly the patient shows signs of toxicity, especially prostration. A dirty grey-green layer of material forms on the tonsils and the sides and back of the throat. There may be a nasal discharge, which is extremely infectious. The voice may become hoarse and a croupy cough develop. This is a sinister sign. Swelling in the internal respiratory tract occurs, toxins are absorbed by the system, and very soon the child becomes extremely ill.

Serious and sinister complications may occur. The powerful toxins are rapidly spread throughout the system and may adversely affect the heart, the nerves (especially those involving the eyes), the pharynx and the breathing apparatus. Muscle groups may also be affected, and this may lead to partial paralysis. Pneumonia is also a serious complication.


Although not often seen in Australia (or in most Western countries) these days, diphtheria still occurs in sporadic cases which usually make headline news. However, the only reason why its incidence is low is because of the massive immunization campaigns that have been carried on for many years. Unless a high proportion of the infant population is continually immunized, then the disease could readily become re-established as a major killer of children.

Active immunization is recommended to start at the age of two months in Australian babies. This comes with the full backing of all state governments, as well as all doctors throughout the land. (Refer to the section on immunization earlier in this chapter for details. Parents (especially parents of a new baby) are urged to follow the advice offered.)

Diphtheria is a totally preventable disease, and it is up to parents to use their common sense in arranging immunization. Persons migrating to Australia from other countries, who may not have had their children immunized, are urged to do so without further delay. See your own family doctor, or visit the local hospital. Baby health clinics can also give you full advice.

Treatment of diphtheria requires hospitalization. Prompt medical attention, either from your own doctor or from the hospital, will help make the diagnosis, and after this skilled treatment by persons expert in the field is essential. The mortality rate is very high. The longer cases are left, the more perilous the outcome.



Here are few proven facts which indict sugar as a causative factor in heart disease:

White, factory-produced sugar is an isolated, chemically pure carbohydrate, which can not be normally digested by the digestive organs. All natural foods contain certain nutritive complements-vitamins, enzymes, minerals, trace elements, flavorings, fatty acids, etc—which are necessary for the effective digestion and assimilation of the nutrients. For example, vitamins E, A, and D cannot be assimilated unless they are accompanied by fatty acids. Conversely, oils cannot be properly utilized without a certain amount of vitamin E. Carbohydrates are not digested or assimilated properly without vitamin B.

When sugar in refined form is consumed, the body will use its own storage of B vitamins, particularly Bi, in order to digest it, because sugar is totally void of all vitamins necessary for its digestion. This depletes the body’s own supply of B vitamins. Continuous overconsumption of white sugar can ultimately lead’ to a B-vitamin deficiency

White sugar also depletes the body of calcium.

Overconsumption of sugar and other refined carbohydrates is the major cause of obesity, which is one of the prime causes of heart disease.

High carbohydrate intake, especially of refined sugars, causes abnormal fluctuations in the blood sugar level. The heart is a big muscle and its continuous beat is dependent on a steady supply of blood sugar and oxygen. Any interference with the adequate supply of sugar or oxygen to the heart will adversely affect the heart action and may, in serious interference, lead directly to a heart attack.8 Tests have shown that in more than half of the patients with heart problems there was an evidence of low blood sugar due to high carbohydrate intake.



Mr. Engberg was stricken by disease in 1963. It started with liver trouble and jaundice. He also had suffered from severe constipation for years. Eventually his condition was diagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis.

During the following year he received various treatments from several doctdrs and hospitals; injections, cortisone, even the so-called injected malaria treatment. Various other remedies were tried without any noticeable improvement. The doctors said that his kind of arthritis was a very rare type that would be difficult to help.

In June, 1964 he went to Bjorkagarden. He could move only with great effort. He was not able to bend his legs or arms. His joints were inflamed, swollen, and stiff.

Mr. Engberg began his treatment with a ten-day fast. He then went on a special diet for 30 days, followed by a new fast for 21 days. He stayed at the clinic for eight months, alternating fasts with diet periods. Some of the shorter fasts were pure water fasts. The long fasts consisted mostly of carrot juice and vegetable broth. The final fast lasted 40 days. The unusually long fasts and the length of his stay at the clinic were motivated by his damaged liver and the necessity of reactivating and rebuilding his liver function as a step in the normalizing of his entire metabolism. All milk was excluded from his diet, but raw nuts and seeds were substituted as a source of protein.

After eight months Mr. K. G. Engberg was able to leave the clinic in perfect health. On returning to his home town, he visited his doctor and received a complete physical checkup. The surprised doctor could not find any traces of arthritis.

Now Mr. Engberg leads a perfectly normal life. He has resumed pathfinding, his favorite sport activity, and he takes part in strenuous training and competitive sports.