Imagine the brain as a business enterprise
Let us imagine the brain as a business enterprise, say a bicycle shop, where the owner looks after the customers at the front counter and the employees in the back room have the job of preparing each bicycle for sale and fixing up damaged bikes. If the people doing this routine work are not functioning properly, the owner has to interrupt his attending to customers and answering the phone to do the other routine jobs that should have been done automatically by the employees in the back room.
Because of the extra jobs he has to do all at once, the owner finds he gets flustered, can’t handle the customers and becomes inefficient. He finds he can handle only a greatly reduced number of customers ringing up or coming in the front door if he has to do all this routine work himself.
This situation is analogous to that of the person with minimal brain dysfunction whose learning/unlearning neurons find themselves having to perform automatic tasks like keeping the body upright, through the visual cells in the cerebral cortex rather than through the automatically functioning cells of the cerebellum and the balance centers.
In my opinion, minimal brain dysfunction is a common cause of a lowered tolerance to frustration and an increased tendency to experience stress-breakdown symptoms with only moderate stress. Unfortunately, because the medical profession is not educated enough about minimal brain dysfunction, this diagnosis is often overlooked, particularly in adults.

Stresses are cumulative
It is important to note that stress breakdown may occur in response to an excessive total load of stresses. There may be a few big problems or there may be an accumulation of an excessive amount of small problems.
Sometimes a person apparently breaks down in response to stress which might not appear serious enough to explain such a reaction. This situation may, however, be something like ‘the last straw that broke the camel’s back’. The breakdown was not triggered by that particular situation but by the accumulation of problems, some of which might be secret or not obvious.
Stress breakdown is more likely, however, where the accumulation is not just in the area covered by question one, but where a person can answer ‘yes’ to all five questions. Thus a combination of increased workload with decreased processing efficiency of the nervous system greatly increases the possibility of stress breakdown.

*8/129/5*



The mast cells are located deep in the lining membrane of the nose, generally near blood vessels and mucus-producing cells. The basophils are located primarily near the surface of the nasal lining. They are the first cells encountered by entering pollens and other allergens—and the first that are triggered to respond during an attack of allergic rhinitis. Each type of cell is able to produce a wide variety of chemical mediators for release during an allergic reaction (table 3-3). Some of these mediators, called preformed mediators, exist already formed in the cells, while others, the newly formed mediators, are formed only after an allergic reaction is triggered.

Chemical Mediators of Mast Cells and Basophil Cells
Preformed Mediators:
Histamine        Eosinophil chemotactic factor
Chymase        Neutrophil chemotactic factor
Tryptase        Heparin
Acid hydrolaxes

Newly Formed Mediators:
Leukotrienes        Prostaglandins
Thromboxanes

The Binding of IgE To Mast Cells and Basophils
Just as IgE has a binding site, the mast cells and basophil cells have a receiving site, or receptor, for the IgE binding site. Although this receptor will accept only IgE molecules, it will accept any type of IgE molecule. So, attached to any single mast cell or basophil cell can be a variety of different IgE antibodies: some made against ragweed, some against Johnson grass pollen, another against oak pollen, etc. Thousands of IgE molecules bind to each of these cells.
*9/322/5*



Одним из важных методов психотерапии является внушение в гипнотическом сне. Несмотря на то что гипноз был известен еще в глубокой древности, его сущность долго не могла быть объяснена наукой. Много разнообразных предрассудков, суеверий связыва­лось с гипнозом. Еще и поныне среди людей, мало знакомых с ес­тествознанием, существует мнение, что гипнотизеры обладают якобы особой магической силой и распространяют вокруг себя какие-то волны особого свойства или какие-то «магнетические флюиды», которые каким-то таинственным образом влияют на человека, находящегося в гипнотическом сне.
Явления гипноза использовались для распространения и укреп­ления в народных массах религиозных верований.
Как же объясняет гипноз современная наука?
Начало эры научной трактовки сущности гипноза связано с именем английского хирурга Д. Брэда. Усыпляя человека путем фиксации взора на обыкновенных предметах, например на блестящем шарике, он увидел, что испытываемые впадают в состояние оцепенения, которое навело его на мысль, что здесь имеет место сноподобное состояние. Д. Брэд впервые назвал это состояние «гипнозом»
Для работ отечественных ученых характерно преобладание материалистических тенденций в подходе к явлениям гипноза.
Различают три степени глубины гипнотического сна: поверх­ностный (I степень), средний (II степень) и глубокий (III степень). В I степени гипноза отмечается только покой, чувство тяжести в теле и веках, однако больной слышит не только слова врача, но и ориентируется в происходящем вокруг, после пробуждения помнит все, что с ним было во время лечебного сеанса.
Средняя степень глубины гипноза характеризуется нарастани­ем сонливости, мышечного оцепенения, утрачивается возмож­ность произвольных движений.
При III степени (сомнамбулической) гипноза больной, кроме голоса врача, уже ничего не слышит, не реагирует на уколы булав­кой и после пробуждения ничего не помнит из происходившего во время сеанса. Эта степень гипнотического сна наиболее благопри­ятна для реализации внушенного, но хороший лечебный эффект наступает и в первых двух степенях гипноза.
Возможность активного воздействия на больного путем внушения позволяет использовать гипноз для лечения невротиче­ских состояний и других заболеваний, особенно, если эти расстройства возникают после психических травм или осложня­ются страхом, напряженным ожиданием повторения болезненных проявлений.
В ряде случаев лечение гипнозом облегчает и ускоряет выздоровление там, где психотерапия в бодрствующем состоянии и медикаментозное лечение оказываются неэффективными.
Известен случай, когда женщина 38 лет заболела после внезапной смерти единственного взрослого сына. В результате этой психотравмы у нее развилось выраженное невротическое состояние. Основным симптомом невроза была упорная бессон­ница. Медикаментозное лечение, психотерапия в бодрствующем состоянии не помогали. Состояние больной с течением времени ухудшалось. Она была направлена лечащим врачом на гипнотера­пию и оказалась хорошо внушаемой. С первых сеансов она легко погружалась во II степень гипнотического сна. Было проведено 12 сеансов гипноза, после которых наступило полное выздоровление. Женщина стала хорошо спать без снотворных средств, исчезли невротические симптомы. После излечения она наблюдалась у врача в течение 20 лет. Через 6 лет после окончания лечения у нее отмечались невротические явления в связи с конфликтными переживаниями. Три сеанса гипноза восстановили ее здоровье.
Можно было бы привести много других примеров положи­тельного влияния гипнотерапии на больных с функциональными расстройствами нервной системы.
Однако не все больные с функциональными расстройствами могут с успехом лечиться гипнозом. Различная восприимчивость больных к гипнозу зависит от особенностей высшей нервной деятельности, характера заболевания, доверия к врачу, обста­новки, в которой проводится лечение. Гипноз не заменяет других методов лечения болезней, но успешно комбинируется с ними, например с медикаментозным лечением, и другими видами психотерапии. Проведение гипноза не врачами и не в лечебных целях запрещено законом.
Лица с хорошей внушаемостью способны с помощью простых приемов самовнушения и аутогенной тренировки самостоятельно бороться с рядом невротических расстройств.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the United States has entered its third decade, and with the passage of time, new challenges have arisen for the medical community. Whereas the first decade of the epidemic was marked by careful study of viral biology and the opportunistic infections that complicate advanced HIV infection, the second decade offered an explosion of antiretroviral treatment options and new hope for long-term control of the virus. But this new optimism is tempered by the ongoing recognition that many HIV-infected patients still present late in the illness, often with serious opportunistic infections or late complications of disease that are only partially reversible (e.g., peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy). Therefore, the third decade of the American HIV epidemic opens with an important challenge that will largely fall to primary care physicians: the identification of all patients infected with HIV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that up to 280,000 HIV-infected people in the United States are unaware of their diagnosis. Unless they are identified, these patients – and some portion of the 40,000 patients newly infected each year – will continue to suffer the consequences of advanced HIV infection while simultaneously (and unknowingly) propagating the spread of the virus and the continuation of the deadliest epidemic in more than 80 years.
*1/348/5*



The two major essential fatty acids, linoleic acid and gammalinolenic acid, in which evening primrose oil is rich, are natural skin nutrients. Linoleic acid and gammalinoleic acid are vital components of the structure of all cell membranes and are normally converted by the body into prostaglandins. Prostaglandins play an important role in maintaining skin health.
When applied directly to the skin, linoleic acid and gammalinolenic acid have a profound effect on reducing trans-epidermal water loss, so evening primrose oil works as a natural moisturizer.
Unlike some other major organs of the body, skin is not capable of converting linoleic acid applied directly to it to gammalinolenic acid. The conversion of dietary linoleic acid to GLA and prostaglandin El is known to decrease with age. As a consequence, the levels of GLA and PGE1 in the skin may become low, and the condition of the skin may suffer.
Because evening primrose oil is such a rich source of GLA, the problematic first step in the conversion process, from linoleic acid to GLA and through to PGE1, is completely avoided.
If you provide the skin with a direct source of GLA, it means that the liver – which normally does the conversion from linoleic acid to gammalinolenic acid – has less work to do. By applying evening primrose oil to the skin, you are providing it with a direct precursor of prostaglandin El on site.
*51/60/5*

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Ectopic Pregnancies
Ectopic pregnancies occur when a fertilized egg implants within the peritoneal cavity or inside a fallopian tube. There the foetus grows and thrives until internal bleeding threatens the expectant mothers life. Surgery is the only means of rescue. Often surgical intervention leaves a woman without one of her fallopian tubes. Ectopic pregnancies impact more frequently amongst women who suffer from Pelvic Inflammatory Disease or use Intra Uterine Devices as a means of contraception.
Home Remedies
Don’t use Intra Uterine Devices as a form of contraception. The devices may be of use in underdeveloped or third world countries where women cannot afford better. Australia is not one of these. Do not have unprotected intercourse with a man of doubtful sexual history without the use of a condom.
Ejaculatory Disorders
Disorders of ejaculation can be divided into three groups: neurotic failure, backward ejaculation and neurological failure. Neurotic failure precludes intra vaginal ejaculation, although it remains possible to ejaculate whilst masturbating. The problem relates to anxiety and requires psychotherapy and behaviour modification.
Backward ejaculation occurs with damage to the bladder neck or abnormalities at birth. Sperm in a post ejaculatory urine specimen makes the diagnosis and drugs are used in an attempt to improve this condition, as well as ejaculation in the presence of a full bladder.
Absolute failure of ejaculation occurs with neurological damage caused by prostatectomy or diabetes. Treatment is difficult. One text suggests implanted nerve stimulators or per rectal electro ejaculation under anesthesia.
*50/131/5*

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In a society which now recognizes that vitamins, minerals and amino acids have a valuable role to play in health, there are precious few nutritional experts to give advice on personal data, such as hair analysis, blood profile, etc.
Beware of believing that being a doctor qualifies someone to give such advice – the medical syllabus provides virtually no information about nutritional matters except where they become medically diagnosable and treatable, such as with scurvy (the clinical lack of vitamin C). For every person who reaches that extreme there are probably a million who are vitamin C deficient in some level or another.
Most people get by on a vitamin/mineral composite daily tablet, but with arterial disease this, while helpful, is not enough. More specific supplementation is necessary; supplementation which, ideally, is tailored to personal profiles such as blood analysis or those designed by a nutritional expert.
*83\104\2*
Cardio & Blood/ Cholesterol
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For years and years, doctors counted heart failure as one of the main reasons to restrict activity for heart patients. After a diagnosis of heart failure, patients were doomed to a life of restricted activity and progressive decline in health and attitude. But a new study has shown that even these patients can achieve excellent results with a good exercise program.
Researchers at Oxford University placed 11 patients with chronic, severe heart failure on a routine of regular exercise on stationary bicycles. Patients were rotated from an eight-week period of exercise to an eight-week stretch of restricted activity. The results were dramatic.
For those who followed their exercise prescription, both symptoms and measured physical condition improved as a result of the training. Exercise lowered the patients’ increased heart rate in response to a given load of effort, lengthened the time they could exercise, and improved their ability to extract oxygen from their blood. Patients also said they felt less breathless and fatigued and that they could do more during the day.
Heart failure refers to the heart muscle’s lessened ability to pump owing to the weakened heart wall. While that heart muscle isn’t likely to improve back to the level of a healthy individual’s, other muscles in the body become more efficient and thus require less blood and less oxygen. The entire cardiovascular system works more easily to meet the reduced oxygen demand of those trained muscles.
Yes, there are certain patients whose heart muscles are so weakened that no level of exercise may be possible. For them, a heart transplant may be the only practical treatment. But for countless others who have previously been denied the opportunity to improve via physical exercise, the British study offers wonderful encouragement.
Most of the patients were in their early sixties and were free of other complications such as severe arrhythmias. Of real importance, they were able to perform an adequate amount of exercise at home on stationary bicycles rather than having to come to a hospital. Now even heart failure has been taken off the list of contraindications for cardiac rehabilitation!
*83\85\2*
Cardio & Blood/ Cholesterol
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Masturbation is extremely common in childhood. Virtually all children masturbate at some stage and it should be regarded as a developmentally normal behaviour. In younger children it is part of the exploration of their bodies, and in older children it is part of the exploration of their sexuality. It is obviously a pleasurable activity in children of all ages, and is a normal part of their physical and psychological growth.

Self-stimulation begins in infancy with nappy changing and bathing. Babies very early on discover the pleasure of touch. Accidentally at first, and then with increasing purpose, they are able to recreate this pleasurable experience, and soon discover the relationship between self-stimulation and pleasure, along with such behaviours as thumb- and finger-sucking, rocking and head-banging.

Some parents attempt to stop or prevent this activity, often out of their own embarrassment. Some sections of the community and some cultures are moralistic about masturbation, implying that it is unnatural and if not prevented may lead to subsequent problems. In fact, this is not true — the repression of masturbation may lead to later problems by making the child guilty and confused about his body and emerging sexuality.

Parents should simply accept that masturbation is universal and a perfectly normal behaviour in children. It is best ignored. Sometimes parents are embarrassed because their child masturbates in public. It is better to distract the child than telling him to stop it. Paying attention to it, and in particular, trying to prevent a child from doing it, confer on the behaviour a seriousness that is unwarranted.

*192\90\8*

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BARIUM ENEMA

This procedure is similar to a barium swallow except that the barium is administered into the rectum using an enema. Under X-ray, it highlights abnormalities of the lower part of the bowel.

BARIUM SWALLOW

A solution containing a substance called barium is drunk, usually on an empty stomach. Under X-ray, the barium becomes visible in the oesophagus, stomach and gastro-intestinal tract. The barium is excreted in the faeces, which are white and powdery for a day or two afterwards.

BIOPSY

A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue, under local or general anaesthetic, for examination under the microscope. The type of cells present can be identified and an accurate diagnosis of the medical condition usually made. Biopsies can be performed on all parts of the body including the skin, lymph nodes, bowel, liver, kidney and so on.

BLOOD CULTURE

This test is done if it is suspected that a child has an infection in the bloodstream (sepsis). It is usually done in a hospital setting, as a child who is indeed septic usually needs to be hospitalised. A small amount of blood is drawn from a vein, just as in a normal blood test, but in very sterile conditions. The blood is mixed with a special culture liquid, then sent to the laboratory where it is incubated at a certain temperature to see if any germs grow. These can then be identified, and tested to see which antibiotics will be effective in treating them.

BONE AGE ESTIMATION

X-rays of the wrists in children can often be used as an indication of whether a child’s growth is in accordance with his chronological age. It can also be used to estimate ultimate height in children with short or tall stature (see p. 354-6).

BONE MARROW ASPIRATION

In this test, which is performed under local anaesthetic in a hospital setting, a needle is inserted through the skin into the hip bone and a small amount of bone marrow extracted. It is generally performed if leukaemia or other similar forms of cancer are suspected.

CARDIAC CATHETER

This test is only performed in a hospital setting, under sedation or anaesthesia. A fine catheter (tube) is passed into the heart via a vein in the thigh, and the internal pressures blood, can be measured. It provides information which is important in the assessment of various heart conditions, especially congenital heart disease.

*25\90\8*

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